Canada Hardiness Zones

The ‘Plant Hardiness Zone Map of Canada’ outlines the different zones within Canada in which various types of trees, shrubs and plants will most likely survive. It is based on the average climatic conditions of each area and is an excellent starting point if you are wondering if a particular plant will over-winter (survive the coolest temperatures) in your area.

By using this map, you can choose the best plants that will be more likely to thrive in your location. For example, when Veseys lists a perennial plant as being suitable for Zones 3-8, this means that if you live in an area within that range, this plant would be suitable for your location.

The data and zone map information here simply reflects the most recent data collected and presented by Natural Resources Canada. Gardeners should understand that this map is a guide only – not a guarantee of gardening success, as climatic conditions are constantly changing and there are many other factors that can affect the success and failure of plants. As well as using this map for reference, we recommend consulting other gardeners who have ‘hands-on’ experience of weather and gardening patterns in your area.

Along with year-to-year variations in weather, microclimates can also play a role in determining the right plants for your garden. Microclimates, which are small areas of varying weather conditions within larger zones, can be caused by local geography of the area such as hills and valleys as well as variations of solar and wind exposure. Even buildings and pavement in urban areas can create relatively small microclimates that can potentially produce different gardening results.

The newly amended Canadian Hardiness Zone map is divided into ten major zones: the hardiest is 0 and the mildest is 9 (the southern tip of Vancouver Island). Relatively few plants are suited to zones 0 and 1.


Canadian Frost Dates

Frost dates are arranged by region and include the first frost date of the season and the final frost date of the season. This simply means a period of time where you can safely set your plants out in your garden ensuring them with optimal growing temperatures during both day and night.

These frost dates reflect the average frost date for a region and may not be reliable in a particular year. You may want to check with local gardeners for more accurate frost date information as there are many variables such as microclimates within an area can cause fluctuations of the frost dates listed below.

Newfoundland & Labrador

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Corner Brook May 21-31 October 11-20
Grand Falls May 21-31 October 1-10
St. John's May 21-31 October 11-20

Nova Scotia

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Halifax April 21-30 October 11-20
Kentville May 11-20 October 1-10
Shelburne May 1-10 September 11-20
Sydney May 11-20 October 11-20
Yarmouth April 21-30 October 11-20

Prince Edward Island

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Charlottetown May 11-20 October 11-20
Summerside April 21-30 October 1-10
Tignish May 1-10 October 1-10

New Brunswick

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Bathurst May 11-20 September 21-30
Edmunston May 11-20 September 21-30
Fredericton May 11-20 September 21-30
Grand Falls May 11-20 September 21-30
Moncton May 11-20 October 1-10
Saint John May 1-10 October 21-30

Québec

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Baie-Comeau May 21-31 September 11-20
Chicoutimi April 21-31 September 11-20
Montréal April 21-30 October 1-10
Québec May 1-10 September 21-30
Rimouski May 11-20 October 11-20
Sherbrooke May 11-20 September 21-30
Trois-Rivières May 11-20 September 21-30
Thetford Mines May 11-20 September 21-30

Ontario

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Barrie May 11-20 October 1-10
Hamilton May 1-10 October 11-20
Kingston April 21-30 October 1-10
London May 1-10 October 1-10
Ottawa May 1-10 October 1-10
Owen Sound May 1-10 October 1-10
Parry Sound May 21-31 September 11-20
Peterborough May 1-10 September 21-30
St. Catharines May 21-30 November 1-10
Sudbury May 11-20 September 21-30
Thunder Bay June 21-31 September 11-20
Timmins June 1-10 September 11-15
Toronto May 11-20 November 1-10
Windsor April 11-20 October 21-31

Manitoba

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Brandon May 21-31 September 11-20
The Pas May 21-31 September 11-20
Thompson June 11-20 August 11-20
Winnipeg May 21-31 September 21-30

Saskatchewan

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Moose Jaw May 11-20 September 11-20
Prince Albert May 21-31 September 11-20
Regina May 11-20 September 11-20
Saskatoon June 1-10 September 11-20
Weyburn May 11-20 September 11-20

Alberta

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Athabaska May 21-31 September 1-10
Calgary May 11-20 September 11-20
Edmonton May 1-10 September 11-20
Grande Prairie May 11-20 September 1-10
Lethbridge May 21-31 September 1-10
Medicine Hat May 11-20 September 21-30
Red Deer May 11-20 September 11-20

British Columbia

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Chilliwack April 1-10 November 11-20
Dawson Creek May 11-20 September 11-20
Kamloops May 1-10 October 1-10
Kelowna April 21-30 October 21-31
Nanaimo April 1-10 November 1-10
Port Alberni May 1-10 October 11-20
Prince George May 21-31 September 11-20
Terrace May 11-20 October 11-20
Vancouver March 21-31 November 11-20
Vernon April 11-20 October 21-31
Victoria March 1-10 November 11-20

Territories

LocationLast FrostFirst Frost
Whitehorse June 10-20 August 20-28
Dawson City June 10-15 August 29 – September 5
Yellowknife May 25-30 September 10-17